Loss of control in-flight (LOC-I) was the major killer in civil aviation during the years 2006–2010, resulting in ICAO setting a high priority to developing mitigating measures to reduce the LOC-I accident rate. This takes a 2-phase approach: establishing training requirements for upset prevention and recovery in commercial aviation and launching a human performance review to identify ways for pilots to improve their monitoring skillset, the response to startle effects and other aspects of human performance.
EASA the European Aviation Safety Agency has released a research report on startle effect management.
The report identifies the problem area as startle and surprise. The effects of this can influence pilot performance in many detrimental ways. At the very least, these effects serve as a distraction which can disrupt normal operation and erode safety margins. On a more critical level, they can lead to inappropriate intuitive actions or hasty decision making. Well learned procedures and skills can be discarded and are substituted by the first thing that comes to mind. (NLR-CR-2018-242)
The startle reflex is the first response to a sudden, intense stimulus. It triggers an involuntary physiological reflex, such as blinking of the eyes, an increased heart rate and an increased tension of the muscles. The latter are necessary to prepare the body for the fight-flight response (Koch, 1999). The startle response is accompanied by an emotional component which for a large part influences how a person responds to the unexpected event (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1990).
Different elements were combined in the first step, the “unload”-step of the URP
Breathing with the diaphragm as practiced in Yoga is crucial to healing from structural injuries, whether they are generated from injury or shock. When we get into accidents, arguments, or other physically or emotionally traumatic experiences, our initial response is to hold our breath. By locking the diaphragm, we signal our body to go into a state of shock. This shuts down many of our restorative physical systems, and re-routes energy to our muscles so that we can fight or flee as necessary to get through the situation we are in.
Once that moment passes, it is necessary that we consciously release the contraction from the diaphragm. If we do not, the contraction (at this point, a fixation) in the diaphragm will persist, and will continue to keep us in a state of shock, during which the body cannot heal tissue or perform vital functions.
The diaphragm has 3 essential functions:
1. It provides a platform of support between the top and bottom of the body.
It is at the diaphragm that our body twists to accomplish contra-lateral coordination between our shoulders and hips as we walk and work. When it is fixated, not toned, or not working properly, our structure collapses and twists, creating weakness in some places and stress points in others.
2. It regulates the shift between the state of alarm and the state of relaxation. When it locks or collapses from having “the breath knocked out of you”, the nervous system can become stuck in the alarm response. This is called Sympathetic Hyper Arousal. SHA shuts down many restorative functions of the body (like digestion, immune system function, and detoxification of chemicals in the liver) in favor of emergency functions. This condition will not resolve until the diaphragm is unlocked and able to function properly.
3. It is the one autonomic nervous system function that we can consciously control! Though you can’t think your way into digesting food more quickly (wouldn’t that be nice) it is possible to speed or slow the breath just by thinking about it. We can use this mechanism to self regulate our nervous system and shift ourselves into a more relaxed state. It is only in a state of relaxation and slow breathing that our body performs important tasks like repairing muscle and joint tissues, nourishing and hydrating the skin, actively absorbing nutrients from the food we eat, deeply relaxing into restorative sleep, and allowing the body to enter a state of sexual arousal. That’s right, beauty, health, and a great sex life, all by taking some time out to breathe! No wonder the disciplines of yoga and meditation incorporate a focus on the breath as a steppingstone to personal mastery.
The duration of a startle can vary from less than a second to about 1.5 seconds depending on the arousal levels. This period can extend if the diaphragm is locked and breathing not restored. While, this is a known fact, no training programme addresses this critical unloading exercise as is carried out in the UPRT programme. The only solution proposed by other methodologies is “do noting first”. This action is counter-intuitive and counter-productive.
The yogic methodology of restoration of the breathing process from the diaphragm or a form of controlled deep breathing is the solution for which the flight must be trained for.
In order to orientate and become situationally aware of the event and environment, mindfulness also requires control of breathing. One is with the body in that point in time when breathing is controlled. Awareness and attention is focussed on the task in hand and all the distractions/clutter removed.